The day after the Opening of the Mouth ritual I was talking with Horemheb and telling him about the ritual. We were in the Isis shrine and he noticed the donation box and became furious. He said he had not authorized it and reiterated his policy of prohibiting donation boxes. He paid for all the sims out of his own pocket and was annoyed that Cleopatra had put up the donation box as any money it collected would go to her rather than to him. He immediately deleted the donation box and said he would talk to Cleopatra about it.
He told me that he had been talking to Cleopatra and that she had mentioned that I had asked one of her friends to change their clothes from Gorean silks to Egyptian clothing at the ritual. He was aware that the high priests’ council had forbidden Gorean silks from being worn in the temple and didn’t understand why she was making such a fuss about it. But he advised me that she had claimed it was another example of my misogyny and that she felt I was trying to get rid of all women from the priesthood. His comment to me was “you have to keep the bitches in line brother”. To which I replied that I had nothing at all against women in the priesthood, but rather that my objection was to Gor in Egypt. He reiterated his support for Gor but said we were free to do as we liked as far as rules for temple behavior.
The next day we had a high priests’ meeting. Amon spoke about the problem of attracting people to the priesthood. Because he felt the problem was caused by the fact that most people wanted to do combat he had come up with a solution. He would create a priests’ army, the army of Min. Min was a fertility god who was usually represented ithyphallicaly1. Amon had chosen Min as he was fond of the iconography of the god. In ancient Egypt the four divisions of the infantry were named after gods, but they were always the four gods of the monarchy, Amun, Re, Ptah and Set2. Cleopatra suggested that the new army could guard the temple newly dedicated to Isis.
The high priests’ council accepted Amon’s idea and it was put to the Pharaoh for his approval, who enthusiastically endorsed the idea of the new army. Amon, and his student Intef, set about recruiting for the Army of Min. They attracted several members who entered the priesthood as warrior soldiers. The army of Min reported to Amon, and if combat seemed likely they would come to the temple and receive instructions from him. He would accompany them to battle but only sometimes participated, though Intef was an enthusiastic combatant. But neither I nor any of the other high priests, except Amon, ever participated in the combat activities.
Perhaps because they had been accustomed to come to seek Amon’s orders as high priest in charge of the army, one day some weeks later a squad leader of the army of Min rushed into the temple and declared that he had been escorting a princess through the desert and that Vikings were attacking Egypt. I was the only high priest in the temple at the time and I was both confused (Vikings?) and yet at the same time felt that as the sole representative of the priesthood in the sims at the time I should make an effort to assist the soldier and the princess. The princess asked that, as the squad leader was the only soldier present at the time, I accompany him to fend off the Vikings. I assured her that I was a non combatant but that I would come along and see how I could help. This was all communicated in character. The squad leader’s urgency can be attributed to inter sim combat that had been going on. Combatants from various ancient themed sims would arrange battles with each other. Sometimes they would make unplanned sneak attacks. We trudged over to the far side of the sims to the area of the desert known as Cyrene. In the distance a lone Viking could be seen. I suggested to the soldier that I would go and see if I could talk with the Viking and see what was going on and that he should stay put and guard the priestess and, in order to avoid any threatening appearances he, being, in contrast to me, fully armed, should wait in hiding with the princess. They agreed and I set off.
The Viking didn’t appear to be doing anything. I approached him and made a friendly greeting. He made no reply. In fact he didn’t move at all. I instant messaged him which also resulted in no reply. It soon became obvious to me that he was afk (away from keyboard) and that, as such, he posed no threat at all to the mighty Egyptian army. He was probably just a curious visitor to the sims. I returned to the hidden soldier and advised him of my findings. We agreed that there was nothing to see here and began on our way back to the temple.
Just as we began to return, the Khasekhemui, the army that had been the sole army before the army of Min was created, appeared on the scene with a group of soldiers. He approached me and immediately began berating me. As we spoke more soldiers arrived, then the oracle appeared and soon there was quite a crowd.
Thutmose: this man seems to have no ill intentions toward us Thutmose: he seems to be a traveler who has lost his way Khasekhemui: Since when do Priests handle these sorts of matters? Takelot: He had two friends with him earlier Thutmose: since I was here Thutmose: I spoke to him Userkaf: and why did he fire at me Thutmose: a greeting from a priest is less threatening than that from an impressive general like yourself Khasekhemui: He could have killed you Thutmose: if you were here general I would have left it to you Khasekhemui: Em Hotep Commander Thutmose: I am not afraid of death Khasekhemui: That would not have been your decision Thutmose: I look forward to walking with the gods in the Aaru Berenike nods Thutmose: only the Pharaoh and myself can decide my life Khasekhemui: None of this is the place of the army of Min or the priesthood Khasekhemui: Min should be defending the temple Thutmose: but I shall leave this matter in your hands general Khasekhemui nods Khasekhemui: Min is to be called if the army of Ra needs them Thutmose: you would have soldiers of the Pharaoh sit idly at the temple gates while invaders ran into Egypt general? Thutmose: we all serve the Pharaoh Khasekhemui: That was not implied Khasekhemui: you are not in Egypt now Thutmose: our shared goal is to keep Egypt safe Khasekhemui: and they are not invading Thutmose: then why are you concerned that a priest went to talk to a stranger Thutmose: concerned Khasekhemui: He could have killed you Thutmose: I am as willing to risk my life for Egypt as you general Khasekhemui: There is no reason for a priest to meet all strangers in the desert Thutmose: and I will do it with no weapons in my hands only with the gods walking with me Khasekhemui: Then why do you need an army? Thutmose: Are you suggesting that I may not greet strangers if I wish general? Khasekhemui: This confuses me Khasekhemui: No, not at all Thutmose: let us not worry Userkaf: commander Thutmose: all seems well Userkaf: can we go train Thutmose: if you wish to remain on guard general I can only commend your diligence Khenut: I will say this to all that were assembled here when I arrived Khasekhemui listens Khenut: you were about to go face something you are ill prepared for, these Vikings are ruthless and kill daily Khasekhemui nods Khenut: they have taken out whole squads of our army before Takelot nods in agreement with the Medjay Commander Khenut: even your numbers would not have saved you Berenike: That would argue for some training, squad to squad, then Thutmose: let us not debate what might have been Khenut: I was coming to try and speak with them .. I am glad the priest was able to do so and return safely Thutmose: indeed Thutmose: and it seems all is well Thutmose: I shall return to the temple Khenut: yes, but I would ask that next time do not show force when you are ill prepared Berenike: I do wonder why they shot at our squad leader? Khenut: just showing up with weapons drawn could have provoked them Thutmose: I do not recall showing any force Khasekhemui: He is lucky to be alive then Thutmose: I spoke to a stranger Khenut: the gathering of a force with weapons drawn is a show of force Thutmose: which is why the armed man remained hidden behind this hill Berenike: Squad leader, were you alone and with drawn weapon at the time they shot at you? Khenut: still they love to fight Userkaf: yes Khasekhemui: You came out of Egypt with weapons drawn, this is not a sign of being friendly Khasekhemui: why are you so far out here in Cyrene? Khasekhemui: what business does Min have in Cyrene? Khenut: these Vikings would have captured and enslaved you all ... I know they have done it before Berenike: Because it has been decreed by Horemheb... Khasekhemui: Oh? Khasekhemui: I am not aware of such decree Berenike: That Min defend the new temple of Isis in Cyrene Khasekhemui: But they have denied connection to Min Berenike: I am sorry, we do not raise the High Priestess above Pharaoh Thutmose: can one be a priest of Egypt and not be a servant of the Pharaoh? Khasekhemui: I am not objecting either of those points Thutmose: is not the army of Min also comprised of servants of the Pharaoh Khasekhemui: I serve the Pharaoh Khenut: I think a clarification of jurisdiction and duties is needed Takelot: Indeed Khasekhemui: and seek to ensure that no one is doing him unjustly Thutmose: why are you bickering among yourselves Thutmose: all that has happened is that servants of the Pharaoh have rushed to defend his lands Thutmose: would you not have that? Thutmose: are we not all men of Egypt? Thutmose: shall we fight amongst ourselves Khasekhemui: I hope not Khenut: This should be done at a higher level then here on this field.. The Generals of the two armies needed to meet with the Pharaoh to clarify Khasekhemui nods Thutmose: and wither our numbers until no one is left to defend the greatest land on earth? Khasekhemui: that is not the issue here Thutmose: it is what I see here general Thutmose: if the armies who ALL serve the Pharaoh are not brothers in arms then Egypt is lost Thutmose: as one we are strong Thutmose: as many we are weak Thutmose: let us unite Thutmose: and share the skills we have Osorkon: High Priest who is your leader Thutmose: so that we may better defend Egypt Khenut: yes but do you not see what the General is trying to find out ... who is in charge where... Thutmose: the Pharaoh Osorkon: not god leader Osorkon: who is leading this group Khenut: on a field of battle we cannot have confusion Thutmose: which group? Osorkon: your group Thutmose: I do not have a group other than the temple Khasekhemui: The group of you standing here, who is in charge? Osorkon: so did you ask to come here Khenut: The army of Min is led I believe by Intef Thutmose: no one is in charge Takelot: Yes Takelot: Intef is their commanding officer Osorkon: did they ask Intef Berenike: The Squad leader was here... and he it was who summoned the high priest Osorkon: is what I am asking Thutmose: the Berenike speaks rightly Osorkon: who is the squad leader Khasekhemui: He has run off Khenut: yes, but my problem once again is knowing you were all ill prepared for what you were about to face Thutmose: your concern is noted Khenut: then we would have had to try and raise an army to save you Thutmose: but all is well Khenut: yes it is... this time Osorkon: even I can't make a battle unless the general says Thutmose: there is no profit in worry about what might have happened Khenut: I must go .. the Viking has awoken and I need to speak with him Khenut: Senebty all Thutmose: we did not make a battle Khasekhemui: Senebty Thutmose: we talked to a stranger Takelot: Peace, Khenut Thutmose: I am returning to the temple Thutmose: senebty general Khasekhemui: Senebty Thutmose: Senebty commanded Osorkon: well I hope you are right Thutmose Thutmose: about what? Osorkon: I have seen high people condemned for just going into something without asking Osorkon: squad leaders more importantly Osorkon: just by experience Osorkon: that is why I say I hope you are right Thutmose: I am saddened by your words commander Osorkon: don't go without say by a high official Thutmose: you should applaud those who are motivated to protect Egypt Thutmose: apart from the princess, who asked me to come, I was the highest ranking person at hand Osorkon: you need to make sure it is alright by rank if you just go to start something then you can get condemned Khasekhemui: If Egypt was under attack, I would say all should fight to protect, but we were not attacked, your soldiers provoked a dangerous man in the desert Berenike: And, as long as this silly turf war goes on... that means that Min will always sit idly by while Egypt is invaded... no matter how prepared we might be Thutmose: talking to a stranger is not starting something Khasekhemui: Your squad leader approached him with hostility Thutmose: It is you who are seeking confrontation here Khasekhemui: Don't tell me what I seek Thutmose: and he is not my squad leader Thutmose: then speak with him Khasekhemui: Min is not your army? Thutmose: Min is the army of the pharaoh, but its leader is the high priest Amon, who has given the generalship over to Intef. Khasekhemui nods Khasekhemui: I will speak with General Intef about this Khasekhemui: Senebty Thutmose: do speak with the general Khasekhemui: If we all fight for the same cause, why have separate armies? Khasekhemui: obviously you have another purpose Thutmose: it is at the Pharaoh's discretion what armies Egypt has Thutmose: my only purpose is to serve the gods Khasekhemui: so he must have a reason then Thutmose: I do not know the god king's reasons Berenike: It is very simple, General. Berenike: One army only, led by an ambitious general can change the dynasty Khasekhemui grows angry Berenike: That is the political reality Berenike: It has happened in Rome Khasekhemui: so the other army is to protect from our army? Berenike: And it has happened in Egypt twice before Thutmose: you must ask the Pharaoh what he plans for his armies Khasekhemui: I am asking him about what he said Berenike: The Lord of Two Lands has led armies... he knows about the ambitions of generals Thutmose: I find it a matter of great sadness general that you seem more concerned with your own status than with protecting Egypt alongside any army the Pharaoh has commissioned Thutmose: are we not all children of the gods Thutmose: do we not all serve the Pharaoh? Khasekhemui: You keep telling me what I am thinking and that is enough of that Thutmose: are not all our lives and ranks at his discretion Khasekhemui: Listen to my words Thutmose: I hear you words general Khasekhemui: The army of Ra is to protect Egypt and the Pharaoh Khasekhemui: The army of Min is to protect the temple, and assist the Army of Ra Thutmose: and they tell me, for some reason I know not, you have no love for those of us who serve the gods Khasekhemui: Stop telling me how I feel! Berenike: excuse me... but it seems that our Viking has become very interested in the Medjay Thutmose: I am not telling you how you feel Thutmose: I am telling you what your words and actions say to me Khasekhemui waves his hand off at the Priest Berenike: Perhaps we should move away and discuss this elsewhere? Thutmose: I am returning to them temple Khasekhemui: I am going to make sure Khenut is safe
I returned to the temple, confused as to what had caused the general’s anger. He obviously resented the army of Min’s creation, but it seemed odd he had chosen to vent his anger on me as, although the army of Min belonged to the priesthood, I had never participated in any of its activities and was known to be a non combatant. The next day I arrived to find the sim abuzz. As I logged on I received a notecard from Cleopatra sent to all priests.
Notecard – Proclamation Of The High Priestess of Isis
The Temple of Isis hereby disavows any association with the “Army of Min” and their group of “holy warriors”. We who worship the Goddess believe in peace, and we trust our lord god, Ptolemy Soter, Most-High, Pharaoh of Egypt, to keep us safe and protected in these troubled times. Any and all Priests, Priestesses, and Aspirants who honor allegiance to the Goddess Isis shall be given safe haven within the temples of Isis in Alexandria and Cyrene. Those who may wish to join the Temple of Isis may contact Cleopatra, High Priestess, Illustrious One of our Mother Goddess. Blessings be onto you Priests and Priestesses of Egypt
Amon messaged me as soon as I arrived and asked me if I knew anything about this. He was deeply upset that Cleopatra had made a proclamation without consulting the high priests’ council. Several other high priests were also consternated and we had a meeting, although Cleopatra was nowhere to be seen. Everyone was concerned that Cleopatra’s proclamation would divide the priesthood and everyone was unhappy she had made a unilateral statement without asking anyone else first. After the meeting Amon issued a statement on behalf of the high priests’ council.
Notecard – Reply From The High Priest
Venerable Sisters and Brothers… it is with regret that I find it necessary to censure our sister, the High Priestess Cleopatra for acting in a manner that calls into question the actions of the High Counsel. A message sent out to the entire priesthood that indicated her personal opinions which went directly against a decision to develop the Army of Min, a division of the Pharaoh’s Armies of which Pharaoh is in fact a member. This was discussed and accepted at our most recent Council meeting. This action shows what might be considered contempt for this counsel and the Order of Osiris in general. I can only imagine what the gods are saying amongst themselves, especially at this time of drought and famine. The High Priestess should be makings offerings to Min, the fertility deity, and welcoming his place amongst us. Instead, she makes public pronouncements which could very well have the effect of splitting our forces and resources. This was ill considered and disrespectful of her Brothers and Sisters in this council. I respectfully require that this council make an immediate determination, demanding that the High Priestess publicly retract her statement, apologize for her ill considered actions, and make a commitment to consult with all of us before she makes any other such public pronouncement. She must keep in mind that she is the guardian of all the gods and is privileged to serve Isis. Isis is not her personal domain… to think so is blasphemous. Also let it be known that all the children of Egypt are welcome to all the temples of the land all the time.
We didn’t see Cleopatra at all that day and it wasn’t until the next day that she logged in again. As soon as she did, without talking to anyone (several high priests were logged in) she sent a proclamation to all the priests. Proclamations could only be sent by high priests and were always sent in character. But this one of Cleopatra’s was OOC.
Notecard – Proclamation By The High Priestess Of Isis
I would like to put into historical perspective the context of my recent role-play actions, and my reasons therefore. As I have affirmed many times over this past four months, my ONLY purpose here is to establish the presence of the religion of the Goddess Isis… which is an implicit, historical fact of the times. As we all know, the Greek Pharaoh Ptolemy fell in love with Egypt. He fell in love with the history and the grandeur of that had once been the greatest civilization of all time. He sought to rebuild the culture and the temples… and to try to save Egypt from the sands of Seth. Many historians have stated that they believe Egypt was essentially in ruins by this time; an archaeological site in 300 BC. No one knew how to read hieroglyphics, and the old Gods were simply shadows of crumbling statues and ancient temples. Yet, from this romantic love affair the Greeks had with Egypt, sometime around 300 BC, the Goddess Isis was born, and in a matter of just a couple hundred years she became the dominant faith of the Mediterranean. As far was we know, Isis was a recreation; a hybrid Grecian-Egyptian faith based on ancient local myth and modern Greek influence of the time. The Pharaoh Ptolemy II himself became a convert to Isis and ordered the construction of the main temple complex at the island of Philae. This is not debatable … it is not negotiable. If we wish to play as accurately as possible in this world, we simply MUST acknowledge and allow for these historical facts. Playing my role as this original High Priestess to Isis … I am responsible as the re-enactor of this very history. Now, for as much as I could, I have tried to stay out of the petty squabbles and political RP of our Second Life Egypt. However, I now find myself drawn into a scenario, which will inexorably change the context of the Priesthood, regardless which way I play it. With all of my research I believe there is no historical presence for an “Army of Min”, in 300 BC, or at any other time either. Let alone, that there ever-existed one, all-powerful priesthood of Egypt at this time. In my opinion, this male-dominated, warrior-priest army, created and dedicated to the cult of Osiris, is direct and absolute reaction to the recent acknowledgement of Isis in our simulation. An army is an instrument of power, designed for one thing, and one thing alone … rule by force. Therefore, given the two choices; of allowing this non-historical, sexist, domination of our religious role-play; or standing up and separating myself, and the cult of Isis, which I am directly responsible for … I have elected to choose to take the high ground. I will follow the historical and factual reality of the third century B.C. … regardless of the dictates of this false, and soon to become oppressive, Osiris Priesthood.
This is a fascinating document. In it Cleopatra uses an argument of historical authenticity to support the establishment of a recreationist Isis cult. It is however a confused mix of historical inaccuracies. Firstly she is confusing the Pharaoh of the sims, Ptolemy I Soter, with his son, Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Our sims were set in 300 BCE. Ptolemy I Soter reigned until 282 BCE when his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus ascended to the throne3 and it was he who was the first of the Ptolemys to extend the pre-existing temple to Isis at Philae, though much of the temple was constructed under the auspices of later Ptolemys4. Her statement that Ptolemy, whichever one she is referring to, was a “convert” to the cult of Isis is problematic as it implies a monotheistic understanding of religious adherence. There is no doubt that all the Ptolemys from Ptolemy II Philadelphus on did extensive building at Philae, but the spread of the cult of Isis at this time was not driven by the Ptolemys but rather was a popular phenomenon among merchants, priests and private devotees5. Moreover Isis was an ancient goddess and was not born around 300 BCE6.
After having asserted these historically erroneous facts, Cleopatra goes on to argue that the army of Min has no historical basis and accuses the other high priests of having created the army of Min in order to oppress the cult of Isis and further accuses us of “non-historical, sexist, domination of our religious role-play”. We were flabbergasted to say the least. Cleopatra came to the temple a few minutes later and advised us that she was leaving for the temple of Isis in Cyrene and wouldn’t be back in the temple of Osiris or Alexandria.
Although the Egyptians had a much more egalitarian culture when it came to relations between genders than most chronologically concurrent societies, it was however the case that female priests did not have the same status as males. Although priestesses seem to have had a more equal status with priests in the Old Kingdom, by the time of the New Kingdom this status had diminished and there are many fewer documented instances of females holding priestly positions at that time7. While women had participated in religious life as musicians and dancers from the earliest days, by the later periods there were few roles other than these available to them8.
It is clear that what was happening here was that a remix of ideas was being created in order to form a new understanding. It is key that what was being sought was authenticity. Things as they really were. I don’t see a desire to deliberately deceive. However the remix is being put forward as historical fact. This phenomenon has been widespread in the formation of contemporary Paganisms. Perhaps the most well discussed example is the idea of a matriarchal, magical religion of witches in Europe that had been extant since prehistoric times and of which contemporary witches were simply the continuation9. Though Margaret Murray is perhaps the best known proponent of this idea, she was the inheritor of earlier ideas. As early as 1839 Karl-Ernst Jarke and Franz-Josef Mone proposed that the victims of the witch hunts had merely been practicing a surviving Pagan religion. In 1862 Jules Michelet, an ardent anti catholic writer, penned La Sociere in which he outlined a feminist, nature worshiping religion of witches, led by priestesses which was wholly joyful, democratic and pacifist10. In 1899 Aradia appeared claiming to be the gospel of an Italian Pagan religion11. While it is incontestable that such works as these contributed to the formation of Wicca, Murray’s ideas were discredited as unhistorical by such writers as Thomas12 in the period from 1970-199013.
For some time the results of academic work on the subject have been slow to be adopted by members of contemporary Paganisms.
“We Neopagans now face a crisis. As new data appeared, historians altered their theories to account for it. We have not. Therefore an enormous gap has opened between the academic and the “average” Pagan view of witchcraft. We continue to use of out-dated and poor writers, like Margaret Murray, Montague Summers, Gerald Gardner, and Jules Michelet. We avoid the somewhat dull academic texts that present solid research, preferring sensational writers who play to our emotions. For example, I have never seen a copy of Brian Levack’s The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe in a Pagan bookstore. Yet half the stores I visit carry Anne Llewellyn Barstow’s Witchcraze, a deeply flawed book which has been ignored or reviled by most scholarly historians.
We owe it to ourselves to study the Great Hunt more honestly, in more detail, and using the best data available. Dualistic fairy tales of noble witches and evil witch-hunters have great emotional appeal, but they blind us to what happened. And what could happen, today. Few Pagans commented on the haunting similarities between the Great Hunt and America’s panic over Satanic cults. Scholars noticed it; we didn’t. We say ‘Never again the Burning!’ But if we don’t know what happened the first time, how are we ever going to prevent it from happening again?”14
Most previous researchers of magic, what few there were, prior to the explosive growth of the academic study of magic since the mid twentieth century, had been skeptics or outright critics of magical practices. Since then a new generation of scholars have arrived and many of them are not only advocates of magical understandings but practitioners of magical religions. This has provided a pathway for the crossover of academic work into contemporary magical religions, and many Wiccans now acknowledge that theirs is a new religious movement, not a continuation of an ancient religion15. However there are still some who claim adherence to the idea of Wicca as the inheritor of a pre-Christian religion16.
Since Gibbons’ remarks there has been increased attention being paid to historical sources that provide information about magic. I expect that as time goes by and these new religions mature they will come to reflect the findings of academic work more. I say this not only because of the rise of practitioner academics, but also on account of the ascendancy of the religion of scientism, or as Noble calls it the “religion of technology”17. Science and technology are held in such high regard by such a large percentage of the population18 that only the most committed will reject the findings of its high priests, the members of the academy, and now that academy has among it adherents of these new religions. Because of this latter fact, it is no longer necessary for contemporary Pagans to reject wholesale the work of scholars who deride magic on purely reactionary grounds. There are now scholars who admit magical realities. As persecution and derision subside, fundamentalist positions are no longer necessary. However at this time there are still those who will continue to promote their own remixes as singular truths.
Ideas from fiction have been blended with scholarly understandings to form new understandings and adopted by members of contemporary Paganisms19. But the ideas of fiction are often remixes of historically verifiable events or ideas. Where is the line between fiction and history? This question really is about the line between art and science. That there should be a division between them, that they should not be a blended whole, is a post enlightenment development. There was no such line in ancient Egypt. There was no fiction and no non fiction. There were stories that gave understandings. Despite the modern acceptance of the religion of science, and its insistence on the importance of facts and of repeatability, we mesh fact and fiction to form new understandings all the time. I am doing this here. There is simply less fiction in science than in religion. The fictions of science are such things as the conception that only things that are repeatable and measurable are true.
- Wilkinson, R. H., (2003), The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, New York, pp. 115-117. ↩︎
- Redford, D. B. (ed), (2001), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 2, p. 404. ↩︎
- Redford, D. B. (ed), (2001), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 3, pp. 76-77. ↩︎
- Redford, D. B. (ed), (2001), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 3, pp. 42-43. ↩︎
- Redford, D. B. (ed), (2001), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 2, p. 190. ↩︎
- Redford, D. B. (ed), (2001), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, New York, Vol. 2, pp. 188-191. ↩︎
- Sauneron, S., (2000), The Priests of Ancient Egypt, Cornell University Press, New York, p. 67. ↩︎
- Sauneron, S., (2000), The Priests of Ancient Egypt, Cornell University Press, New York, p. 67. ↩︎
- Murray, M. A., (1921), The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, The Clarendon Press, Oxford. ↩︎
- Ankarloo, B. (ed), Clark, S. (ed), (1999), Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Twentieth Century, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 31-32. ↩︎
- Ankarloo, B. (ed), Clark, S. (ed), (1999), Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Twentieth Century, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, p. 32. ↩︎
- Thomas, K., (1991), Religion and the Decline of Magic, Penguin Books, London. ↩︎
- Ankarloo, B. (ed), Clark, S. (ed), (1999), Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Twentieth Century, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 35. ↩︎
- Gibbons, J., (1998), “Recent Developments in the Study of The Great European Witch Hunt”, The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies, Issue 5, pp. 2-16. ↩︎
- Hutton, R., (2001), The Triumph of the Moon, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ↩︎
- Janus-Mithras, Nuit-Hilaria, Mer-Amun, (1981), Wicca the Ancient Way, http://dreaminghades.com/wicca-the-ancient-way, Accessed 02/04/2014. ↩︎
- Noble, D., (1999), The Religion of Technology: The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention, Penguin, New York. ↩︎
- Barnes, I., (2005), “Debating the Theological Implications of New Technologies”, Theology and Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 179-196. ↩︎
- Cusack, C., (2010), Invented Religions, Ashgate, Farnham. ↩︎